Limb amputation in squamous cell carcinoma patient with history of leprosy

##plugins.themes.academic_pro.article.main##

Rasikha Tsamara F
Ruth Brigitta S
Andre Setiawan
Sony Sugiharto

Abstract

Leprosy is a chronic granulomatous disease affecting the skin and peripheral nerves caused by Mycobacterium leprae that results in neuropathy, deformity, and auto-amputation of digits. If auto-amputation does not occur, wound will lead to chronic skin injury which become one of risk factors for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Early diagnosis and prompt treatment was essential to treat chronic limb ulcer to prevent further development of SCC. To report a patient with history of leprosy with chronic ulcer in right foot that first started as a marble-sized boil a year ago. The patient underwent below knee amputation for treatment. Methods is Clinical case documentation and the patient medical record was collected and narrated chronologically in a case report. Literature review was conducted non-systematically by article database and manual searching through search engine. A 46-years old male with history of leprosy was admitted with chronic ulcer in right foot, difficulty walking and enlarged lymph nodes in both of inguinal region. The patient underwent below-knee amputation and lymph node excisional biopsy. Histopathology finding was squamous cell carcinoma without metastasis to the lymph nodes. The patient showed good outcomes post-operatively and currently undergoing rehabilitation for artificial limbs. Main treatment for SCC is wide excision, but when abnormalities are found in limbs and interferes with function, wide excision can be performed as below-knee amputation for complete treatment. This procedure can also treat chronic limb ulcer in patient with history of leprosy to prevent further development of SCC

##plugins.themes.academic_pro.article.details##

How to Cite
Tsamara F, R., Brigitta S, R., Setiawan, A. and Sugiharto, S. (2023) “Limb amputation in squamous cell carcinoma patient with history of leprosy”, Science Midwifery, 10(6), pp. 4837-4844. doi: 10.35335/midwifery.v10i6.1117.

References

Achehboune K, Elloudi S, Issoual K, Dahhouki S, E. a. (2022). Squamous cell carcinoma on plantar perforating ulcer in an old leprosy: case report. International Journal of Dermatology Research, 2(1).
Alam M; Ratner, D. (2001). Cutaneous squamous-cell carcinoma. N Engl J Med, 344(13), 975–983.
Andersen, J. G. (1976). Below knee amputation. Leprosy Review, 47(1), 51–55. https://doi.org/10.5935/0305-7518.19760007
Barella, C. S., Blanco, L. F. de O., & Yamane, A. (2013). Análise dos dados epidemiológicos dos laudos de carcinoma espinocelular. Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd, 11(1), 43–47.
Bauk, V. O. Z., Assunção, A. M., Domingues, R. F., Fernandes, N. C., Maya, T. C., & Maceira, J. P. (2006). Úlcera de Marjolin: relato de 12 casos. Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia, 81(4), 355–358. https://doi.org/10.1590/s0365-05962006000400008
Bhat, R. M., & Prakash, C. (2012). Leprosy: An overview of pathophysiology. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/181089
Chowdhry S, Priya, Meena A, Sahu R, Dhali T, D. P. (2020). A Four Pronged Avant-Garde Approach [Chowdhry’s Regimen] to Forefend Below Knee Amputation in a Patient of BL Hansen’s Disease Having Associated Complications. Clin Case Rep Int, 4, 1142.
Cooreman, E., Gillini, L., Pemmaraju, V., Shridar, M., Tisocki, K., Ahmed, J., Munodawafa, D., Pontaza, C., Esin, D., & Nhat, Nguyen, L. (2018). Guidelines for the diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention of Leprosy. World Health Organization, 1, 106.
Diffey, B. L., & Langtry, J. A. A. (2005). Skin cancer incidence and the ageing population [10]. British Journal of Dermatology, 153(3), 679–680. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.2005.06799.x
Faleiro, T. B., De Cerqueira Daltro, G., Guedes, A., Da, R., Schulz, S., De Schoucair Jambeiro, J. E., Betânia, M., & Toralles, P. (2016). The Foot and Ankle Online Journal Orthopedic approach of the leprous foot. www.faoj.org
Gomes FG, Frade MAC, F. N. (2007). Úlceras cutâneas na hanseníase: perfil clinico-epidemiológico dos pacientes. Anais Brasileiro de Dermatologia, 82(5), 433–437.
Koh, D., Wang, H., Lee, J., Chia, K. S., Lee, H. P., & Goh, C. L. (2003). Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma of the skin: Analysis of the Singapore Cancer Registry data 1968-97. British Journal of Dermatology, 148(6), 1161–1166. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2133.2003.05223.x
Lee DJ, Rea TH, and M. R. (2012). Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology in General Medicine. Heart & Lung, 28(5), 6A. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0147-9563(99)70018-x
Mora, R. G. (1989). Non-melanoma skin cancer. Primary Care - Clinics in Office Practice, 16(3), 665–684.
Nath, I., Saini, C., & Valluri, V. L. (2015). Immunology of leprosy and diagnostic challenges. Clinics in Dermatology, 33(1), 90–98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clindermatol.2014.07.005
Sewon kang, Amagai, M., Bruckne, A. L., Enk, A. H., Margolis, D. J., McMichael, A. J., & Orringer, J. S. (2018). Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology 9th Edition. New York : McGraw-Hill Education, 3145–3172. https://booksmedicos.org/fitzpatricks-dermatology-9th-edition/
Upputuri, B., Srikantam, A., & Mamidi, R. S. (2020). Comorbidities associated with non-healing of plantar ulcers in leprosy patients. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 14(6), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008393
Wang, S. H., & Pancholi, P. (2014). Mycobacterial Skin and Soft Tissue Infection. Current Infectious Disease Reports, 16(11), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11908-014-0438-5
WHO. (2017). Global leprosy update, 2016: accelerating reduction of disease burden. Releve Epidemiologique Hebdomadaire, 92(35), 501–519.
WHO. (2021). Global leprosy (Hansen disease) update, 2020: impact of COVID-19 on global leprosy control. Weekly Epidemiological Record, 96(36), 421–444. https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/who-wer9636-421-444
Yan, S. (2020). Skin nonmelanocytic tumor Carcinoma (nonadnexal): Squamous cell carcinoma. Dartmouth-Hitchcock.